National Resilience as the Basic Capital of National Development
In 2013 the United Kingdom published Preparation and Planning for Emergencies: The National Resilience Capabilities Program (NRCP): The National Resilience Capability Program. The program is a blueprint prepared to respond to emergencies and references in the face of crisis. It is implemented by building the capability to deal with the consequences of any emergency, whether caused by accidents, natural disasters, or emerging from human threats.This capability involves a number of relationships and Dependence between factors such as the readiness of the number and type of personnel, equipment and equipment required, adequate training and training, clear and measurable planning, and other relevant matters.
The purpose of NRCP is to identify challenges and to monitor the current level of capabilities of each affordable element within a defined workstream. There are at least 22 government departments responsible for the implementation of the framework. The Civil Contingencies Secretariat (CCS) will be responsible for the overall management and implementation of the program. While the National Resilience Capabilities Program Board (NRCPB) together with relevant ministries and Prime Ministers as chairman of the National Security Council will assess the capabilities that have been achieved.
What goes on in the UK is an implementation of the National Resilence concept. Government agencies take a real and operational role based on a workstream or framework by enhancing the institutional capability of preparing, responding and recovering to emergency situations affecting the country. National Treasury becomes an operational concept and is focused on issues of state capability in the face of emergency . Although impressed National Resilience just becomes a kind of rapid responsesnegara to civil emergency that can happen anytime, at least National Resilience a concept whose implementation can be measured in real and operational.
In Indonesia, the concept of National Resilience has a more complex dimension because it involves all aspects of the life of the nation and the state related to the tenacity, toughness and ability to develop and live all the potentials of life, face all threats and challenges, and achieve its national goals. National Resilience is intended to support the success of the main tasks of government such as the creation of social order and law enforcement, realizing prosperity and prosperity, the implementation of defense and security, realizing legal justice and social justice, and creating opportunities for people to actualize themselves.
National Resilience is the mainstream to synergize the mindset of all components of the nation, as well as the workstream reference to act and work to counter all threats, challenges, obstacles and disturbances known as ATHG, develop the nation’s potential strength, and coordinate inter-related sectors as input for government in formulating policy And the development strategy reaches its national goals. The potential national powers include natural aspects (geographical, population and natural resources), as well as social (ideological, political, economic, socio-cultural, and defense and security) aspects. The overall potential of national power therefore needs to be managed with the right mainstream and workstream so as to support all government policies.
Experience the New Order and the Challenges of Today
Beginning with its power, the New Order promised a national development to improve the welfare as antithetical to the economic crisis of the Old Order. The problem was that the New Order was faced with a highly unstable political reality and full of conflict due to political fragmentation of the flow. It was a major obstacle in the government’s effectiveness to And implement the national development policy. This is the underlying paradigm of national development of the New Order which places the stabilization of social and political stability as an important prerequisite that must be met in implementing national development. The creation of socio-political stability is then followed by a security approach supported by repressive tools that eventually create a government Authoritarian and undemocratic.
The stabilization of socio-political stability as a foundation of this national development in the right momentum is also supported by the country’s expansion in the abundant natural resources industry. Oil and Gas became a prima donna in the 1970s-1980s when booming happened. Oil and gas revenues surpassed targets amid the global oil crisis after Middle Eastern countries are pressing production. The New Order also opens itself to foreign investment flows as a shortcut to access capital to accelerate national development. Organized social political stability, abundant natural resources and The increase in foreign investment then became the capital for a monolithic New Order government to develop and implement national development policies.
The reversal of the New Order policy took place when this monolithic power began to be affected by power diseases. The English classical philosopher Lord Acton said power tends to corrupt, absolute power absolutely corrupt, the power tends to deviate, let alone unattended power effectively, must diverge. The stabilization of socio-political stability develops into repressive freedom and merely support for hegemony of power, the natural resources industry is full of corruption and foreign control, foreign investment creates an overwhelming dependence and foreign debt. In fact, when the current global economic recession occurred in late 1997 Indonesia collapsed due to the state Inefficient government, corrupt governments and accumulated foreign debt. This proves how Indonesia’s National Security is very fragile due to the lack of power dissolved in its domestic interests.
Now, after the reforms all experience openness, both political, economic, social and cultural. A very liberal democracy permeates all the joints of nation and state life. The political system becomes highly fragmented in so many political parties, the synergy between state institutions becomes a competitive check and balances, coalition versus opposition, politics being transactional and commodified. The national system of government is decentralized and presents local rulers who like little monarchs in the region. The new oligarchs have sprung up in economics and politics. The ideology of the state is faced with an open space of contestation among global ideologies in a liberal political system.
Domestic changes occur so quickly as a consequence of the changing world trend. Behind it, hiding global interests are intruding in the name of the universalism of democratization and the modernization of the world. The purpose of this single power is to create a relation of dependence and control of the strategic resources of the fragile state of its National Resilience. As we know, many strategic sectors in Indonesia such as banking, mineral and mining resources, oil and gas, telecommunications and other important sectors in the mastery and The dominance of foreign capital. The country seems powerless because it is in the power of foreign interest. Therefore, it is important to re-strengthen the National Resilience and formulate the right strategy to make its implementation more effective, directed and measurable.
Operationalization of National Resilience
Based on the National Resilience Measurement Laboratory Assessment in 2016, the National Resilience Index is 2.60 or up from 2.55 in 2015. This index is obtained by calculating index of eight gatra (natural aspect or geography, population and natural resources, and aspect of ipoleksosbudhankam). Lowered to 108 variables and 821 indicators. Composite index in the range 1-5, where index 1 shows National Resilience in a prone position, index 2 less tough, index 3 is tough, index 4 is tough and index 5 is very strong. The declining index of natural wealth, ideology and socio-cultural, others have increased particularly the security defense that reached the index of 3.08 or quite tough.
The findings prove Indonesia’s National Resilience in a vulnerable position, less resilient in maintaining the existence and achievement of national goals. Governance of important aspects of National Resilience needs to revitalize fundamentally to support national development. It begins by reinforcing three important aspects: first, strengthening resilience The ideology of Pancasila from every threat of radical ideology such as extreme fundamentalism, liberalism-capitalism, communism and others. Secondly, strategic natural wealth for national interests must be restored to the control of the state in order to improve the welfare of the people. Third, strengthen the internalization of noble values in various social institutions And mass culture products. Society should be strengthened by dialogical ability among social groups, re-identify and develop various existing social wisdom as cultural strategy to counter the penetration of foreign culture that is contrary to nation norm and state ideology. Therefore, more operational, directed and measured blueprint is needed to assess governance So that these aspects of national strength can be used to realize national development.
Blueprint National Resilience should be placed within the framework of evaluation of factual reality, perceptions of the latest threats and the vision of achieving national goals. This flueprint is an operational and mandatory mainstream and workstream at the level of the superstructure of state power. Without it, it is difficult to provide an assessment of the extent to which the state has taken a role in developing National Resilience as a prerequisite in national development. The National Sustainability must be reflected in all programs, policies and behaviors of state power so as to assess its achievements and accountability. Every state institution, both central and local, should be clearly responsible and take a role in ensuring the implementation of the National Security blueprint. Similarly, community infrastructure such as civil society, NGOs, and community groups should be encouraged to carry out their obligations as citizens to participate in strengthening National Resilience.
Simply put, the British experience has shown how the concept of National Resilience is implemented measurably at the institutional level of the state, with the stated goals and significance of overcoming the emergency as a threat to the existence of the state. It is therefore an urgent agenda for Indonesia to make fundamental changes to Implementation of the National Resilience concept. Without effective change, undoubtedly not only the diminished aspects of natural wealth, ideology, and social culture, other aspects will wait for time to break if not fixed immediately. The institutional role at the political superstructure level is important because it will be a guidance for the level of political infrastructure or the community in taking the role of operationalizing the National Resilience concept so that it can support and become the basic capital of national development.
*) WildanNasution, Senior researcher at Strategic Assessment, Jakarta.