Intolerance and Efforts to Strengthen the Nationality Identity
Today the dynamics of the nation and the state are colored by events that disturb the fundamental thing, namely our sense of nationalism. In the midst of implementing a very important state agenda, namely the simultaneous local elections (elections) in 2017, appeared fenomenagerakan protests and political campaign based on ethnicity, religion, race and customs (SARA), which sparked reactions luas.Fakta social scale-fact diversity sociological then lifted to the surface and accelerate social unrest in society.SARA experiencing political commodification and soon become a commodity so easily exploited for hidden agenda tertentu.Masyarakat fragmented in solidarity in the group and out groupketika respond polarization-based issues SARA so quick. The potential Phenomenon for social segregation is that ultimately destabilizes the joints of social cohesion and harmony in a society that has been well preserved.
To be honest recognized the recent emergence of racial issues can not be separated from the socio-political dynamics in DKI Jakarta.Kepemimpinan Basuki Purnama Tjahaja alias Ahok in Jakarta is often tinged with controversy in the community vary. The polemic is often more intense in artificial matters such as communication style, personality and behavior problems than the substance of Jakarta development problem which is the main responsibility of Ahok as the head of DKI Jakarta. Discussion about the policies pursued by the Jakarta government is eminent, but in the end bias due to less popular and less attention from the public. However, the phenomenon can be a valuable lesson because it turns the public in general is still of the view that the issue of the personification of the leader is not a separate thing of qualifications and competencies necessary capacity to perform the function of leadership as the head of the individual daerah.Skill leaders must be balanced with a good personality in harmony with the values And norms that live in society.
The peak of the problem in DKI Jakarta that mengeskalasi SARA issue is widespread statement Ahok when the speech in the Thousand Islands, September 27, 2016 ago, namely “.. do not believe the same people, can just be in the small heart of Mr. baseball my mother choose. Dibohongin wear letter Al Maidah verse 51, all kinds of it. That’s your father’s right .. “. The recording of the speech was then viral in social media and immediately triggered a reaction from Muslims who accused Ahok of blaspheming. Can not fail for hundreds of thousands to millions of people protest in the Islamic Defense Action I (October 14, 2016), Islamic Action II or Action 411 in front of the Palace by hundreds of thousands of Muslims, and Islamic Action III or Action 212 “Super Damai” end of year 2016, urging that Ahok be dragged to Court. Now that the prosecution has been launched by prosecutors in the Ahok court over alleged blasphemy cases, protests continue to color the course of the judiciary, including the re-emergence of 313 action on 31 March 2017 demanding that Ahok be removed from office as governor and immediately imprisoned.
The legal process that runs as a manifestation of the rule of law does not seem to satisfy some parties so that the protests still appear along with the development of various issues that are not relevant to the substance of the problem, such as racist sentiment as well as religious beliefs.Position Ahok as incumbent and paslon governor in the elections DKI Jakarta Very competitive also contributed to the complexity of the problem. A number of people considered that the protest against Ahok despite the issue of anti-religious blasphemy, is considered full of competition and elections to politicize SARA.Begitupula with the action of counter SARA issue, despite raising the issue of pluralism, diversity, unity and tolerance then interpreted As a veiled movement to defend Ahok. In a political situation already tense, social distrust has formed between societies, making it difficult to conclude that genuinely pure action reflects a social correction of the irregularities in elite behavior and power. Finally, all phenomena are entangled in the most political dimension Low, that is just a struggle for support for power.Pakikat political as a means to accommodate the various public interests to be away from events that are considered daily politics.
SARA Issues As A Technological Reproduction
The objective facts of Indonesian social reality are complex societies with sociological diversity, such as ethnicity, religion, race and custom. While politically, although the political atmosphere of the flow is not as thick as in the Old Order era, the current political openness has evoked the romanticism of past political flows in degrees that are still at artificial and symbolic levels. This fact is certainly a challenge for the leaders of the nation, especially the political elite to manage so that it can be in a harmony needed to realize the goals and national ideals. In that context, the whole process of the dynamics of social life and politics can be placed within the framework of the state based on Pancasila. The position of Pancasila as the state ideology becomes a fundamental factor because it is the basic consensus that has been agreed by the Founders of the Nation, as well as the right value system to respond and accommodate the complexity as a nation state. Without it, undoubtedly the social and political relationships between these complex elements will take place anarchy and are dominated by the desire to dominate one another.
Learning from the phenomenon of the rise of social distrust each other, or often also analogous to euphemism as a symptom of social intolerance, social diversity has been placed as a major source of political competition power by a few groups. The SARA issues are the result of what Carl Schmidtt calls the technological reproduction of political competition for the quantity of public support for power. The situation distances the qualitative discourse on politics as a way to the public bonum or the common good. Dialienasi Society of historicity and empirisitasnya of social life filled with tolerance, respect, harmony, kinship and spirit in a harmonious atmosphere of cooperation and mutual trust one another. This action has deprived the community of its national identity which has been a strong foundation for the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
The perpetrators who exploit the SARA issue, both pro and contra groups, as long as they are still in the realm of political power competition, are nothing more than machines in technological reproduction to gain quantity of voice support. Such actions no longer appear as genuine wills of a society conscious of socio-political diversity as objective facts that need not be contested. It also does not reflect societies experiencing internalization of Pancasila as the basic norm governing the relationships between the superstructure and political infrastructure in national and state life. This technological reproduction is an aggression against the exercise of political representation that should be a major issue in power politics. Political representation is not synonymous with the quantitative representation of popular voices in the legitimacy of power, but it is more essential that the representation of people’s political interests in the agenda of power with similar and similar relations.
Strengthening the Nationality Identity
Indonesia’s experience is unique compared to other countries that have a multicultural reality. Almost all countries in the world with multicultural problems, dominant group or majority group is a cultural base that forms its national identity. Just look like the United States with anglo saxon and Christian as their cultural base, or Malaysia with bumiputera Melayu and Islam.Hal is different from Indonesia where the cultural base is not placed within the framework of the dominant group but social consensus among social groups living in Indonesia . Take the example of Indonesian as a national language derived from the Malay language that has become a lingua franca of trading languages that flourished in the archipelago for centuries. Indonesian language is not derived from the Javanese, Madurese or Sundanese which is the dominant tribe in Indonesia.Begitupula with the agreement of Pancasila as the basis of the state that recognizes the existence and contribution of all religions in Indonesia in arranging the life of the nation and the state in harmony.This Pancasila Replacing the role of religion, but rather reflect the essence of the noble religion and beliefs that exist in Indonesia.
The position and role of this dominant group are institutionalized and become the norms which then theoretically believed to be the main foundation that reinforces the national integration. Just look at the studies by Myron Weiner and James Coleman which summarize the role of the dominant group as the integrative power of a nation. This concept, obviously the nation’s major strength of Indonesia’s integration lies precisely to the extent to which the basic consensus of life as a nation and state can be maintained and preserved, not only as a collective memory of the past, but in everyday factual experience. At the same time, this basic consensus is complemented by developing other integrative factors that are concrete and real in society, through what are called national elements, not only national language and ideology but also other things such as national development Equality, connectivity and integration of territories, cultures, symbols and all attributes that are accepted and national. All national aspects, both the value system and all of its realizations, are the basis for building and strengthening national identity.
In the framework of strengthening national identity, politicians, community leaders and rulers must stop exploiting SARA as a tool and justification to obtain the political legitimacy of the people. SARA should be accepted as natural facts which are a gift of God Almighty that is not to be debated and shaken in the competition Politics of power. Diversity that often becomes a political issue must also be stopped, because diversity is the reality of Indonesia as a plural society. Diversity is a state of nature than Indonesia so it does not need to be contested.
The existing agenda and socio-political energy is directed to encourage people trapped in the clutch of social distrust to reconstruct their dialogical ability through the collective memory of harmony and close togetherness that has been built so as to strengthen its unity. The noble values that have existed in Indonesia must be explored Again, presented as the daily experience of all the people, made a consideration in all actions of power. Thus, any attempts to politicize SARA will be an act of provocation and become common enemies of the whole community, as only the source of fragmentation and undermining Indonesia’s national integration we have achieved.
*) Wildan Nasution, Senior researcher at Strategic Assessment, Jakarta.