Archipelago Insight as National Doctrine to Maintain the Existence of NKRI
Today the world is faced with four crucial issues, namely humanitarian crisis, economic slowdown, regional tension, and the increasing threat of transnational crime. According to the United Nations more than 20 million people are threatened with starvation and extreme food shortages in Yemen, Somalia, Southern Sudan and Nigeria. While UNICEF estimates as many as 1.4 million children have the potential to experience violence and threatened hunger in 2017. The largest wave of displacement in history after World War II occurred where millions of Africans and the Middle East exodus to various countries, especially Europe due to poverty, conflict Internal as well as warfare.
Another problem is the trend of world economic slowdown where economic growth in 2016 fell to 3.1%. The shadow of the economic crisis haunts the world when Europe is hit by the financial crisis, Greece failed to pay, followed by England out of the European Union (Brexit). In Asia, China cut its economic growth forecast to 6.5% from 6.7% in 2017, the lowest in 25 years the US.Sedangkan under Donald Trump became very protectionist policy of the US Central ekonominya.Bank or The Federal Reservetelah twice raising interest rates (Fed Fund Rate or FFR) in the past 10 years. Earlier US interest rates had risen 0.25% in December 2016, and are currently in the range of 0.5-0.75%. This increase will affect the stability of the financial system and the macroeconomic performance of the country with its high economic dependence.
The tensions in the region have not only resulted in human tragedy but are also accompanied by the threat of a Cold War era between the West and the East on issues against ISIS terrorism in Iraq and Syria. Russia and Iran became close allies of the regime of Bashar Al As ‘Ad which is disliked by the US and NATO. Meanwhile, Asia Pacific was also hit by tensions over North Korea and China’s nuclear issue which unilaterally claimed the South China Sea region accompanied by a show of military power in the disputed territory. The potential for South China Sea conflict will have an immediate impact on Indonesia’s national interests in view of the PRC’s claim to the territory they call a traditional fishing zone that is intertwined with Indonesia’s sovereign territory in the waters of the Natuna islands. If the conflict is increasing in an arms race, it will potentially cause a global scale wars since many nations that put the interests of the natural resources and sea lanes in the South China Sea, such as the US, India, Japan, Vietnam, the Philippines, and including Indonesia.
Transnational crime has developed more modern, complex and large scale, for ideological motives such as terrorists as well as economic motives. The Global Financial Integrity (GFI) report, March 2017, lists 11 categories for the black market for transnational crime, namely arms, Human organs, cultural objects, forgery, rare animals, fish theft, timber theft, theft of mining products, with an economic value of USD 1.6 – 2.2 trillion per year. Various world issues will certainly affect many countries, not least Indonesia. The development of the global world order always presents two sides, namely the opportunity to achieve progress and threats that if not anticipated can backfire for the national interest. The trend of world change must be critically observed for proper positioning to develop domestic potential and take a role in global world order. Indonesia is a big country with various supporting potentials such as geographical area, geographical position, human resources and natural resources which must be managed properly. In addition, as a large country Indonesia has a very dynamic domestic conditions, both sociologically and politically. This is certainly a challenge that must be overcome so as to remain conducive in organizing the life of nation and state. In that context the concept of Insight Nusantara become very relevant as a doctrine The national basis that is transformed in the design of various national policies across sectors in national development.
Concept and Function Insight Archipelago
Indonesia is a country with many islands that are surrounded by oceans that become the world’s traffic path, and flanked by two big continents, Australia and Asia. Historically, before Indonesia’s independence there had been kingdoms of the archipelago such as Sriwijaya and Majapahit who had the ability to travel between continents and establish trade relations with both the islands of the archipelago and other regions. Knowledge of the objective and historical conditions contributed to an awareness of the archipelago state’s archipelago state after independent Indonesia, inherent to the rights of an archipelagic state which, of course, differed from that of the continent.
On December 13, 1957, the Djuanda Declaration declared that the islands and the sea in the territory of Indonesia were unified and sovereign territorial units. The boundaries of the territorial sea (12 miles wide) were measured from the line connecting the outer end points of the island The Declaration was followed by UU No 4 / Prp of 1960 on Indonesian Waters replacing the Territoriale Zee En Maritime Kringen Ordonantie in 1939. With the law Indonesia’s width increased from 2 million km² to 5 million Km² where 65% is the waters or oceans. In addition, Indonesia is also entitled to the Exclusive Economic Zone (ZEE) as far as 200 miles measured from the base of the sea and the Continental Shelf of Indonesia in accordance with the principle of the Unified Islands State of the UNCLOS 1982 (United Nation Convention on the Law af the Sea) ratified through Law No 17 of 1985 (December 31, 1985).
This territorial conception of Indonesia develops not only to affirm the claims of territorial sovereignty alone but also to aspects in a territory that need to be synergized in order to achieve the national objectives. This idea begins the concept of Nusantara Insight as a National Outlook which sees nation and region as a unity that must be dynamically implemented to achieve the national goals that have been set in the midst of the relations between nations and countries in the world. The concept of Nusantara Insight is then transformed into MPR Decree. IV / MPR / 1973 on GBHN in Chapter II Letter E, continued until MPR Decree 1993 and 1998 about GBHN as a way of view and attitude of the Indonesian nation about themselves and the environment by prioritizing the unity and unity of the nation and the unity of territory in organizing the life of the community, nation , And the state to achieve national goals.
Through the GBHN, archipelago insight becomes a kind of basis for the blueprint for national development. In addition, archipelago insight becomes part of the legal and regulatory hierarchy in Indonesia so that it has binding and operational consequences in various development policies, whether involving governance of all national potentials covering ideology, politics, economy, social culture, defense and security which Integrated with its territorial aspect so as to support the implementation of life of nation, state in achieving national goals. Thus, archipelago insightis not only an inward looking perspective against all potentials of domestic power, but also outward looking where the potential is synergized and supports regional politics or geopolitics of Indonesia both in the region and globally. Therefore, Nusantara Insight is a national doctrine that does not live in empty glass, but will always be faced with various dynamic conditions, either due to interaction between the elements in the country, as well as the influence of the development of the world.
Implementation and Challenges
The main problem that must be answered related to the Archipelagic Insight is how its position in the constitutional system after the amendment of the 1945 Constitution removes the duty of MPR to determine GBHN ?. The archipelagic insight which was previously a binding legal norm has shifted to a concept in intellectual discourse. It certainly has different dimensions in its application. As a legal norm it is binding and executable to every element of the country. When its position is reduced to intellectual discourse it is difficult to effectively demand its execution. This situation has led to the idea of the need for a separate law on the Insight of the Archipelago.
The proposed DPD RI which has now been in the hands of the Special Committee of the House of Representatives (DPR) on the Insight of Nusantara Insight if it will later be set to be a legal umbrella for governance of all policies, organizing and legislation intended to maintain the unity of NKRI that is dynamic and sustainable. A factual obstacle in implementing the Archipelagic Insight as the basic national doctrine for managing the vibrant national and state life in an increasingly competitive global situation. Therefore, homework about the need for legal umbrella for the implementation of the concept of archipelago Insight to conditio sin quanondan needs priority.
In addition to the issue of legal umbrella, the concept of Wawasan Nusantara also faced with domestic dynamics that deserve to be observed. Economic and welfare distribution is a real challenge that must be solved. The data show that the unequal distribution of welfare nationally has increased since reformation and has now reached the 0.40 gini index, an alarming threshold in which the gap between the rich and the poor widened. Social segregation based on ethnic and religious sentiments also began to appear on the surface. The sociological aspect that has been latent has emerged due to the political competition with the commodification of SARA. Diversity as a sociological fact was hastily exploited surface and neglected the spirit to respect and respect as the basis of the emergence of social solidarity and national unity. So does with the effectiveness of national governance system and national development policies that have to deal with political polarization and the overwhelming spirit of decentralization of government.
These various domestic problems will come into contact with the development of the world that shows potential threats to the national interest. With the Archipelagic Insight we can recognize how the state as a dynamic organization will require a living space (lebensraum) in accordance with its development. Developing Indonesia must ensure that its living space is not threatened by the development of living space in other countries. The need for this living space will be a real threat and lead to both peaceful expansion and warfare when a rapidly developing country is unable to fulfill it. The facts show that Asian countries such as Malaysia, Vietnam, and China are experiencing rapid progress both in population and economy growth which is certainly directly proportional to the needs of living space.
These domestic and global challenges must be the main consideration for the effort to re-establish the concept of Nusantara Insight as a national doctrine which has a strong legal basis to ensure the existence of national and state life within the framework of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia. There is no other choice for all elements of the nation and the country besides unite and build synergy if it is committed to the continuity of NKRI. Without that unity, Indonesia will undoubtedly be crushed by global forces that are currently in a tense interaction and may at times be escalated in a level that endangers the Indonesian national interest in a factual manner.
*) Wildan Nasution, Senior researcher at Strategic Assessment, Jakarta