Maintaining Tolerance In a Plural Society in the Republic of Indonesia
It is “sunnatulah” that we are born and live in Indonesia, a country with a rich and wide variety of ethnic origin, religion, language, race, ethnicity, class, culture, and who knows what else. Of course, this diversity has positive and negative implications. Negative implications arise when diversity meant as a threat, not a challenge. So it is not growing mutual understanding on the differences.
Conversely, if among the children of this nation can run mutual understanding and tolerance for the differences; diversity will be a powerful force. Islam recognizes that diversity is a natural thing for humans, and each group must interact with a difference. In his words of God declared, “Oh mankind, we have created you from a male and a female and made you as nations and tribes that ye may know each other-know.” (QS.al-Hujurat: 13), Allah has created man different nations, cultures and languages, but basically they are “ummatanwahidatan” or people who one, that is, the difference was not significant abolish the unity of humanity.
We also have a means of unifying the differences born of the noble values of the nation, Pancasila and the Constitution of 1945 with a variety of systematic order in it. Pancasila is the basis of the procedures governing state religious life as expressed in the first principle “Almighty God”. From the first principle, we know that all eligible religion and belief respectively. In the 1945 Constitution stipulated in Chapter XI RELIGION article 29 paragraph 1 “state based on the belief in almighty God” and article 29 paragraphs 2 “The State guarantees the freedom of each citizen to profess his own religion and to worship according to his religion and belief”. Judging from the article above we know that, the Indonesian state frees people to choose their own religion without any coercion from the state or the government, because it includes the rights and obligations of each of us as the people of Indonesia based on Pancasila.
However, it must be recognized that the issue of religious harmony is still a serious challenge that must be faced d. Either because fsktor provocation and challenge from the outside as well as from our own country. But whatever the challenges and the problem, we believe that God will provide a way to completion. As a big country and a rich diversity arena indeed many challenges to be faced, but certainly a lot of solutions that can be d dig. Already a national consensus for this nation to respect each other and respect differences that values harmony and harmony can be maintained.
Communication between co-religionists are conducive to the main purpose of religious harmony itself. in order to create a comfortable environment and away from the conflict because of differences of faith and belief. Humans are social beings who can not live alone. Air religious harmony will help humans as social beings which itself requires the help of others. So, with its harmonious interaction between religions will encourage a good and mutually beneficial. We can also connect ties between fellow human beings. in a social context, the public can interact with anyone without religious restrictions.
So we mingle regardless of religion. Religious harmony is not the needs or demands of the government. It is an obligation, which is the extent of humanity. Because living in harmony and peace is the humanitarian duty of everyone. The first precept of Pacasila essentially a fundamental commitment to the nation that life must be based on religion joints. Therefore let in the wake of religious life with quality and dignity to uphold the spirit of harmony and peace among religions. Religious harmony aims to create a good social interaction and is the state’s interest in creating a safe country, peaceful and comfortable.
Recognizing this, the founders of this country have been thinking about how the effort to unite Indonesia’s diverse society through the motto “Unity in Diversity”. That has different meanings but remain to one also. Deeply culturally diverse meaning although Indonesia as a multi-cultural country, where there are many ethnic, religious, racial, indigenous arts, language and so forth, but remains a single entity, namely countrymen and compatriots. We are united with a flag, anthem, currency, language and so forth. National and state according to Al-Qur`an only as a means to draw closer to Allah SWT, therefore, national and state must be believed to be one belief that no less important than the other acts of worship, because it has relation with the nation, the state and its supporting entities that are citizens.
Tolerance in a pluralistic society is considered important, to continue to stay in touch citizens of various races, languages, cultures and religions in the Homeland. In keeping tolerance in the plural society, often in some of the latest situation has been sacrificed, both in party democracy as elections and other situations. I hope the younger generation can fortify you from all negative influences that exist today, referred to nurture tolerance in society. We live in a pluralsociety that rich diversity; it must be a positive value for us. In law enforcement know Pro Justice police conducted an investigation and investigators, and Restorative Justice where the legal alternative of choice. Law on the first tolerance Law 1/1965 on blasphemy sentenced to 5 years in prison. Law 40 Year 2008 about elimination of discrimination, racial and ethnic sentence of 5 years and a fine of 500 million rupiah. Law 11 Year 2008 about information and electronic transactions of 6 year sentence, and a fine of 1 billion rupiah.
All punishments are continuing as stipulated in the law, where every sentence is not the same. Tolerance is usually associated with religion in which ethnic, religious, racial and inter-group incorporated in diversity. Sampit Tragedy Dayak 2001 vs. Madura, 1999 Ambon tragedy Muslim vs. Christian, national tragedy in 1998 China versus Native, these events a valuable lesson for us all, that in the future our relatives do not become a victim in the future. Therefore we police hope all young people, can continue to maintain inter-ethnic tolerance, race, religion and class that had been maintained. In solving amicably tolerance must be put forward, so that we are the customs and culture of eastern maintained.
Meanwhile, in the perspective of religious tolerance, of our glasses seminars like this could be a solution. This nation is a nation that has a pluralistic society; the challenge is how to maintain tolerance in a pluralistic society. Religious tolerance in nature or respect for others is different from the opinion. Best man should be useful to others. Freedom of religion is part of the respect for human rights are fundamental.
In the context of social and religious tolerance colored attitudes and actions that prohibit discrimination of different groups or are not accepted by the majority in society. Tolerance and respect not only apply to other people, to different religions and beliefs also remain familiar with tolerance. In addressing the diversity required based on the values of Pancasila, the Constitution 45, Homeland and national unity. Indonesian state based on God, thus the context of national and state should be based on the values of divinity.
On the other hand, the tolerance from the perspective of young people, youth under law 40 of 2009 citizens who are aged 16-36 years. Tolerance attitude of belonging and respect are adhesives and binders harmony of the nation. Potential conflicts and challenges will be faced because we are an island country that has diversity in every respect. Religious values and culture does not become a source of ethics in the state and nation. All religions teach about kindness. The cultural values became a source of ethics and morals. The younger generation last concern in maintaining unity.
The socio-cultural conflict occurs because misunderstand tolerance, in addition to economic inequality, bureaucratic practice dyed corruption, democratic practices mortar mix personal and group interests. Tolerance from the perspective of young people make religious values and culture as a source of ethical life in order to strengthen character and morals. History of the struggle of Indonesian nation has recorded an important role, as the frontline of this nation. Tolerance is an absolute necessity in the life of society.
*) Wildan Nasution, a researcher of the Center of Strategic Intelligence Risk Assessment (Cersia) Jakarta and alumnus graduate at a university in Palembang, South Sumatra.