Communism: Between Illusion and Reality
History recorded, PKI ever rebelled in 1948, became the fourth winner with more than 6 million votes in the 1955 elections, to engage in a political crisis and human tragedy in 1965 that ended PKI Indonesia. In the world, Vladimir Ulyich Lenin overthrew the Russian empire and had established the Soviet Union after winning the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. While in China, Mao Tze Tung founded the PRC in 1949 after defeating the nationalist faction of the Kuomintang, Chiang Kai Shek and power in the country with a population of 1.2 billion. In North Korea, communism transformed with the teachings of Juche by Kim Il Sung, Vietnam after the unification of North and South Vietnam under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, and Cuba after Fidel Castro overthrew Fulgencio Batista.
The collapse era ofEuropean Communism began with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and reunification the liberal West Germany and communist East Germany. Glasnost and Perestroika brought down the Soviet Union at the end of 1991 and be a blow to the communist regime in the East European. Globally, communism bankrupt, but by no means have been exhausted completely, the communist government still exist in North Korea, Cuba, and RCC. Indeed, there is a judge that communism in these countries have deviated from the doctrine of communism, but it can not be denied there are the same characteristics that totalitarian rule was established through a social revolution, single-party system, anti-democracy and repression of freedoms.
The history of the communist regime in the world cannot be separated from the revolution and humanity tragedy. Totalitarian communist ruleis form of dictatorship of the proletariat with monopolistic power and repressive violence. The using of “lawful” for the doctrine of social revolution substantially emphasize the forced seizure of factors of production as a source of strength to be taken over by the working class or proletariat of the hands of the owners of capital. The communists also believe that the state is nothing but a means of oppressing the only defends the interests of the rich owners of capital. Therefore, social class must be destroyed by means of seizing power from the owners of capital towards a classless society. Set of doctrines of communism is what makes ideology and political practice of communism became the “scourge” scary in the world, including in Indonesia.
Latent to Manifest
New Order have effective instrument to be aware of latent danger of communism through propaganda, litsus, political screening and education. Besides Tap. MPRS Order XXV of 1966 on the Dissolution of the PKI and the prohibition of the spread of Marxism Leninism or Maoism or Communism, the New Order also apply the principle of single Pancasila. Even though, population policy also lists the attributes of former political prisoners or political prisoners are usually attached to former sympathizers, members and underbouw PKI. Every restriction was lifted after the reform, except on the dissolution of the PKI and the prohibition of communism in MPRS Decree XXV Year 1966. Activist or descent PKI has restored civil rights and political level with other citizens. Many of them have entered various sectors of political life, such as Ribka Tjiptaning that tout pride as PKI child who now occupy seats in the House of Representatives of the PDI-P.
It should be recognized that the issue of communism and PKI are very sensitive so prone to be manipulated in the interests of certain political because it concerns the wounds of history. In April 2016 Symposiumtragedy of 1965 held suspicion that the country is directed to apologize and recognition in PKI, and negate the fact that the PKI was involved revolt and unilateral actions that trigger human victims. This triggered a reaction by convening the symposium to secure Pancasila from PKIthreats and other ideologies in June 2016. The bearers anti-PKI Symposium wants reconciliation humanitarian happen naturally is not disturbed. Humanity tragedy as a result of ideological conflict that is action-reaction, causing casualties between two parties that should solved. Opinion as PKI was the victim of a unilateral considered unfair and misleading history. Because fact, they encouragegovernment consistency to ensure that the PKI and its teachings banned in Indonesia.
Momentum of 2014 presidential election was also enlivened with the issue of the rise of the communists after propaganda of communist symbol widespreadand PKI cadres who want to return to the political stage. Unfortunately, many political activistsopen permissive toward communist’s propaganda. They blamed fears of communism as an old fashion, phobias, paranoid and pro Orba. It contrasts with the critical view they use to respond to the issue of Islamic radicalism that just do not appear on the issue of latent danger of communism.
A similar atmosphere also takes place in momentum of elections 2017. Media accounts of communist and their friends. Hammer symbol which PKItypical-scythes found on T-shirts, books, house wall, flags, leaflets, as well as the rise of the CPI massive rumor fills the public space. In Pamekasan, Madura, it is discovered graffiti action of hammer-scythes in public facilities including a mosque. In Banten, the PDI-P candidate Rano-Embay in the 2017 gubernatorial widely exposed to the issue as a hiding place PKI cadres. AlfianTanjung, activists of the Islamic movement has even accused the Palace as a place of meetings of sympathizers and communist cadres. In Kampar, Riau, a married couple arrested for wearing a shirt with a picture of the mosque is decorated by Hammer-Sickle emblem. Books grating High School national examination of hammer-scythes found in Ciamis, until the emergence of allegations activists FPI, HabibRizieq about BI logo is synonymous with the Hammer-Sickle symbol PKI.
The unrest is exacerbated by a variety of rumors about the implications that can be caused due to the closeness of economic relations between Indonesia and the PRC that communism, as well as intense communication between political parties in Indonesia with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP .As known to the public, that a number of major parties in Indonesia, such as the PDI-P, Golkar, the Democrat, Nasdem, PKS has established communication with PKC. Political elite should be sensitive to the psychological community and understand the fears of the rise of the CPI. There is a historical fact that embed PKI Indonesian politics with China, so it is understandable if some communities concern about the relation between Indonesia and China which may repeat the history of past and utilized PKI sympathizers to metamorphose into force of the latent power manifest in Indonesian politics.
Increasing the Awareness
Massive propaganda of communist symbols must be observed critically. Era of freedom and democracy opened up opportunities for all forms of political ideology to exist to the surface, both the extreme left and the extreme right. Therefore, the public should not be more permissive towards ideologies of extreme which nti-Pancasila. Critical behavior is importance to the symbols and communist propaganda, whether through social media or open propaganda. This includes a critical attitude to sort out whether it was a hoax stocked propaganda group is not responsible for triggering public unrest by exploiting mass hysteria of psychologically traumatic to the action of the CPI in the past or do indicate the re-emergence of communist forces in Indonesia.
Awareness and synergies between communities, government and all components become very important. Government of the nation has a responsibility to create security, order and harmony in a society that has been built well. Every issues and maneuvers that would be counterproductive to efforts to build the nation should be anticipated early, either through political approaches both persuasive and effective law enforcement. It should be understood, that Communism as a political ideology will still have room to grow in terms of thought and hard to be handcuffed. However, communism as a political movement can be prevented by closing the space and the objective conditions that can be a momentum for political propaganda of the communist group.
Efforts to close the space for political articulation of communist ideology must necessarily be through efforts to raise awareness of the latent danger of communism. Communism as well as radicalism and anti-Pancasila terrorism and enemies of the people. For those who give sympathy and argued on behalf of democracy and human rights for the communist forces, must understand that in Indonesia is still valid TAP MPRS XXV / 1966, Pancasila has been agreed as the State of the final, because it is incumbent upon the government, society and the entire political elite to make sure there is no room for anti Pancasila ideology that grow in Indonesia.
The objective conditions are often exploited as a tool of communist propaganda such as the issue of economic inequality, poverty, injustice, becomes a chore government supported by all political forces in Indonesia to be dealt well. The politicians and the political elite have an ideological duty to encourage the government to work effectively carrying out development in various fields evenly and maximum for the welfare of society. With this powerful synergy, undoubtedly latent danger of communism and PKI can we anticipate and face together, preventing something considered illusion into reality.
*) Erlangga Pratama, CERCIA Observer, Jakarta