The Role of Young Generation in Counterterrorism
“Give me 1000 parents so they will pull Semeru Mountain until the roots. But if you give me 10 young man, so They will shake the world” (Ir.Soekarno)
The unforgettable tragedy is terrorist attack in Sarinah on January 14, 2016. One of man with black clothes, hat and bag behind his back came out and immediately opened fire. Such professional shooter, he attacked brutally that killing innocent people was justifiable. People feared, screamed, cried, and died after being bombed and gunned down. The tragedy that shocked all people immediately perceive pounding heart, trembling hand, hard to breath and also difficult to said anything and haltingly and it is including me near a located. What happen with this country ? Why does he act brutally ? The numbers of people were injured due to terrorist anarchy. Emerged the questions in my mind and might be also people surroundings that impaired indirectly psychological. Where is your nationalism? Suddenly, reflection comes to my thought if that brutalism would be theirs convenience to representing theirs religions or beliefs? What would be the religion which encourage that like as of attack? How could the religious giving a tolerance by killing man and let the body of the man lying with the blood violently.
The great young is an Indonesia who able to uphold the principles of justice and not by means of force. as young generations is properly we have a strong character, the spirit of nationalism, leadership, seeking knowledge, and a competitive in globalization. The role of young is most important in modern time. It should become aspiring authorized ruler replace the previous. It can play a vital role in elimination of terrorism. Young contribution is important due to are the country’s power, strong forces in social movement and to attain a higher level of intellectual ability and to become qualified adult.
Terrorism and perspectives psychology affiliation
The people with attack is bring emotion in his brain and aggressive behavior. Aggression is physical behavior or verbal behavior applicable to hurt others. Some violent people radicalism with ideology already form him to make extreme decision. Aggression derive from an area of study called “social cognition”. The basic notion is people interact with environment based on how they perceive and interpret it. Another important negative emotion is anger and feelings of hostility. The process of ideological development have three things that is injustice perception (e.g., Economic, Political, environment), need for belonging, need for identity (Borum, 2004). The young man is the right target for creating a nasty behavior with ideology inside their cognition.
Many first attempts to understand and explain terrorism with psycho-dynamic framework. (Crayton, 1983) in Borum Journal, posed the “psychology of narcissism” as a framework for understanding terrorist behavior. A refer to diagnostic and statistical manual mental disorder fifth edition about Narcissism. Narcissistic is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy that begins by early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts . The terrorism tend to have personalities who feel that they are doing is right and what is doing others wrong.
Individual Psychology theory suggest that the emerging adulthood (i.e.,youth 15-25 years) strive for superiority is with little or no concern for others, Their goals are personal ones, and their striving are motivated largely by exaggerated feelings of personal inferiority, or the presence of an “Inferiority Complex”(Adler in Feist,Jess and Gregors: 78-2007).
Rahman (2016) noted in neuroscience news that sometime people think that violent actions must be the product by mental illness. But mental illness is not a critical factor in explain terrorist behavior. Also, most terrorist are not “psychopaths” (Borum,2004). People with a high level of extreme belief their common personalities haven’t developed and idealists are easily amazed an authority figure.
As social identity theory predict, the self-identification of terrorist as member of much larger community will help them to fulfill their goals (Tajfel, 1984; Turner, 1991; Javaloy, Rodriguez and Espelt, 2003; Taylor, 2003) that is First, Conformity and obedience, The greater identification with the terrorist organization, the greater identification with the norm which rule the members behavior. Second, Bipolar worldview, Identifying with their organization and reference community motivates to develop negative prejudice about people from other communities. Third, Social Cohesion, the collective identity shared by members of terrorist organization promote positive relationship among them, which increases intragroup cohesion and cooperation. Fourth, Depersonalization, Terrorist tend to perceive themselves as interchangeable members of organization. This motivates to give preference to the interest and goals.
In addition, Lawrence Kohlberg (kohlberg in Kroger : 104-1996) said that moral dilemmas all involve conflict-between preserving life or upholding the law, between adhering rightness or wrongness of a hypothetical action. The physical or hedonistic consequences of an action for the self are the prime considerations in moral decision-making, alongside rigid adherence to authority. The value of social contract (a promise) is in conflict with the value of obeying an authority figure .
Consequently, when cognition have been plentiful with doctrinal, Radicalization will be change became positive affection “Extreme Overvalue Belief”. Happiness and proudness when conduct to encourage motivates for desperately defending the values of faith, belief and ideology.
Young adult and their ideological
Based on investigated by author Prof. Sarlito Sarwono Wiriawan in his book on “Terorisme di Indonesia dalam tinjauan psikologi” has also been noted a lack of knowledge of terrorism is this particular finding in school and campus about religious understanding vurnerable doctrinal affect and psychologically seeking identity who became new terrorist. They are dominate in school or campus organization area (e.g., Osis, Rohis)
Some sources said campus is strategic location for distribute idea radicalism independently and not rarely using symbolic, sentiment and mask of religious with brainwash which aims for out of order religion and confict emerged. Nevertheless, in a way giving civic education and Islamic introductory education comprehensively and critically by lecturer and proffesor should be a good insight significantly.
Indeed, terrorism is just not for young adult due to they are don’t really see the reason behind sometimes most of the time is affect vulnerable background and some kind of disability with themselves or family member due to they are on child thought or behavior so they are easy target to change ideology by those who are evil. all of the terrorism biggest problem is accidentially to killing innocent people. Generally, the pain innocence get and destroy wild life and air, water and affect on next generation. Leading the young and what to brainwash them as they are and themselves after that not turn back (i.e., Jihad). Each of brainwash can be realised by a victim so bad clam will return to the sender. That is case a terror inside them and after they act as terrorist
Anyone must be condemn this act of terrorism particular young generations. All of people regardless their religion, race and origin must support it. In islamic ethical conducts of war, muslims are prohibited to attack a holly place of other believers, children, and women. As young generations can be recognize problems and can solve them. Hopes a peace of the world and free of poverty, unemployment, inequality and also free discrimination on the ground of race, color, language and gender. A world with creativity challenges and opportunities to conquer them. But let us convert these hopes in reality.
As I have suggested, Not affected by the issues of terrorism and provocation and always provide your brain with positive knowledge. Understanding how ideology terrorism works to prevent it and make a knowledge about terrorism for adequate your ideology. To participate and active become agent of change in the prevention of terrorism.
Furthermore, the role of government and society justice surrounding people is important to improve education in our country particularly in young ideology of terrorism and give education comprehensive to students. Currently, in government it’s difficult to find expert people with frank and reliable. Provide deeper grasp of religion and introduces the young man about the history of the struggle of the state is required to developed the patriotic spirit in ourselves and grasp of religion properly and critically.
*) Naimah Novianti (University of Mercu Buana)
- American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Cautionary statement for forensic use of DSM-5. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Doi :10.1176/appi. books.97808904
- Breivik. A (2016). Extreme Beliefs Mistaken for Psychosis by Tahir Rahman, Phillip J.Resnick, and Bruce Harry in Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the law. retrieve May 23,2016 From : http://neurosciencenews.com/extreme-belief-mental-health-4281/
- Borum, R. (2004). First Generation of psychological research on terrorism. Journal of Psychology of Terrorism, 19. University of south florida
- Borum, R. (2004). First Generation of psychological research on terrorism. Journal of Psychology Of Terrorism, 13-14. University of south florida
- Corte,Luis de la.(2007).Explaning Terrorism: A Psychosocial Approach Vol 1 no.2. In terrorism analyst. Retrieved May 23,2016, From http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/8/html
- Feist, Jess & Gregory Feist. (2008). Theories of Personality-Mc Graw-Hill Primis Humanities Social Science Language (7th ed).
- Megawati, A. (2015). Teori dan Model Penjelasan Terkait Terorisme Ditinjau Dari Pendekatan Teori Sosio-Psikologis Narcistik. In Jurnal Intelijen. Retrived December 17,2015, From : http://jurnalintelijen.net/
- Sarwono,S.W.(2004).Terorisme di Indonesia Dalam Tinjauan Psikologis, Tangerang. PT Pustaka Alvabet.